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Table 1 In vitro toxicology studies of cancer models to AuNP exposure for AuNPs smaller than 4 nm

From: Gold nanoparticles for cancer radiotherapy: a review

Size (nm) Coating Cancer cell line Exposure Time (h) Toxicity Ref.
2 MMPC1 COS-1 0.38–3 μM 1–24 IC50 = 1.0 μM Goodman et al. (2004)
MMPC2     IC50 > 7.37 μM
MMPC1 Red blood cells 0.27–833 μM   IC50 = 1.1 μM
MMPC2     IC50 = 72 μM
3.5 ± 0.7 Lysine, poly(lysine) RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage 10–100 μM 24–72 >100 μM after 24 h Shukla et al. (2005)
1.4 PH2PC6H4SO3H MV3, <0.4 mM 24 IC50 = 0.24 μM Tsoli et al. (2005)
  BLM    IC50 = 0.30 μM
1.1 GSH HeLa 5.6 mM 48 IC50 = 3130 μM Pan et al. (2009)
1.4 TPPMS     IC50 = 48 μM
TPPMS, GSH     IC50 = 181 μM
1.4 TPPMS HeLa Up to 10 mM 36 IC50 = 30 μM Pan et al. (2007)
  SK-mel-28    J774A1 IC50 = 30 μM
     L929 IC50 = 56 μM
TPPTS HeLa    IC50 = 46 μM
1.9   BAECs 0.125-1 mM   ~30% cell death at 1 mM AuNPs exposure Rahman et al. (2009)
1.9   Du-145 Up to 2 mg/ml 24 LD50 = 20 μM Coulter et al. (2012)
  MDA-MB-231    LD50 = 24.6 μM
  L132    LD50 = 320 μM
  1. MMPC1 and MMPC2 mixed monolayer gold clusters functionalised with quarternary ammonium and with carboxylic acid, respectively, TPPMS sodium triphenylphosphine monosulfonate, TPPTS sodium triphenylphosphine trisulfonate, PEG polyethylene glycol, GHS glutathione