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Table 1 Summary of radiosensitizing experimental data obtained with ionizing radiation and gold nanoparticles

From: Biological mechanisms of gold nanoparticle radiosensitization

Author Size (nm) Concentration Surface coating Cell model Source energy DEF/effect
In vitro
 Bobyk et al. (2013) 1.9
15
10 mg/ml, 15 min Thiol F98 glioma cells 50 keV, 6 Gy Sensitization ratio of 1.92 for 1.9 nm particles and 1.4 for 15 nm particles
 Butterworth et al. (2010) 1.9 10, 100 µg/ml Thiol AGO-1552B
Astro
DU-145
L132
MCF-7
MDA-MB-231
PC-3
T98G
160 kVp 1.97
0.96
0.81
0.87
1.09
1.11
1.02
1.91
 Chang et al. (2008) 13 10 nM Citrate B16F10 6 MV e Significant decrease in SF @ 8 Gy
 Chattopadhyay et al. (2013) 30 2.4 mg/ml PEG, HER2 targeted MDA-MB-231 100 kVp 1.6 (targeted)
1.3 (untargeted)
 Chen et al. (2015) 28 36 µg/ml BSA U87 160 kVp 1.37
 Chithrani et al. (2010) 14
50
74
7 × 109 NPs/ml Citrate HeLa 105 kVp
220 kVp
660 keV
6 MV
1.66
1.43
1.18
1.17
 Coulter et al. (2012) 1.9 12 µM
(500 µg/ml)
Thiol MDA-MB-231
DU-145
L132
160 kVp 1.8
 Cui et al. (2014) 2.7 0.5 mg/ml Tiopronin MDA-MB-231 225 kVp 1.04–1.44
 Geng et al. (2011) 14 1.25, 2.5, 5 nM Glucose SK-OV-3 90 kVp
6 MV
1.44
1.3–1.37
 Jain et al. (2014) 1.9 12 µM
(500 µg/ml)
Thiol MDA-MB-231 160 kVp 1.41
 Jain et al. (2011) 1.9 12 µM
(500 µg/mL)
Thiol MDA-MB-231
L132
DU-145
160 kVp.
6 MV
15 MV
1.41
1.29
1.16
 Joh et al. (2013) 12 1 mM PEG U251 150 kVp 1.3
 Kaur et al. (2013) 5–9 5.5 µmol/mL Glucose HeLa Gamma (60-Co)
Carbon (62 MeV)
1.52
1.39
 Khoshgard et al. (2014) 47–52 50 µM PEG, Folate-conjugated HeLa Gamma (60-Co) 1.64 (targeted)
1.35 (untargeted)
 Kong et al. (2008) 10.8 15 µM Cysteamine/glucose MCF-7 200 kVp
662 keV
60-Co
1.3 (cysteamine)
1.6 (glucose)
 Liu et al. (2010) 6.1 0.4–1 mM PEG EMT-6
CT26
6.5 keV
8.048 keV
160 kVp
6 MV
3 MeV proton
2–45% decrease in survival rate
 Liu et al. (2008) 4.7 500 µM PEG CT26 6 MV 1.33–1.59
 Liu et al. (2015) 14.8 1.5–15 µg/ml Citrate HeLa 50 kVp
X-rays
70 keV/µm carbon
1.14–2.88
1.27–1.44
 Ngwa et al. (2013) 50 0.2 mg/ml Methyl polymer HeLa I-125 seeds with average photon energy of 28 keV 1.7–2.3
 Rahman et al. (2009) 1.9 0.25, 0.5, 1 mM Thiol BAEC 80 Kvp
150 kVp,
6 MV
12 MV
20
1.4
2.9
3.7
 Roa et al. (2009) 10.8 15 nM Glucose DU-145 662 keV (137-Cs) 1.24–1.38
 Taggart et al. (2014) 1.9 12 µM (500 µg/ml) Thiol MDA-MB-231
T98G
DU-145
225 kVp 1.17–1.23
1.35–1.9
1.01–1.1
 Wang et al. (2013) 13 20 nM Glucose A549 6 MV 1.49
 Wang et al. (2015) 16
49
20 nM Glucose MDA-MB-231 6 MV 1.49 (16 nm)
1.86 (49 nm)
 Wolfe et al. (2015) 31 × 9 0.3 OD PEG, goserelin-conjugated nanorods PC-3 6 MV 1.36 (targeted)
1.19 (non targeted)
 Zhang et al. (2008) 30 15 nM Glucose DU-145 200 kVp >1.3
 Zhang et al. (2012) 4.8
12.1
27.3
46.6
0.05 mM PEG HeLa 662 keV (137-Cs) 1.41 (4.8 nm)
1.65 (12.1 nm)
1.58 (27.3 nm)
1.42 (46.6 nm)
 Zhang et al. (2014) <2 50 µg/ml GSH or BSA HeLa 662 keV (137-Cs) 1.3 (GSH)
1.21 (BSA)
In vivo
 Chang et al. (2008) 13 200 µl, 200 nM GNPs IV Citrate B16F10 6 MeV e Tumour growth delay
 Chattopadhyay et al. (2013) 30 0.8 mg Au
i.t.
PEG, HER2 Targeted MDA-MB-361 100 kVp, 11 Gy Tumour growth inhibition
 Chen et al. (2015) 28 1.3 mg/mL
i.v.
BSA U87 160 kVp, 3 Gy @ 2 h post injection, 2 Gy @ 24 h post injection Tumour regression
 Hainfeld et al. (2004) 1.9 1.35 g Au/kg,
2.7 g Au/kg
i.v.
Thiol EMT-6 250 kVp,
26 Gy
50% and 86% long-term survival at 1.35 g and 2.7 g Au/kg
 Hainfeld et al. (2010) 1.9 1.9 g/kg
i.v.
Thiol SCCVII 68 keV,
42 Gy,
157 keV,
50.6 Gy
Increase median survival (53 vs 76 days and 31 vs 49 days at 68 keV and 157 keV)
 Hainfeld et al. (2013) 1.9 4 g Au/kg
i.v.
Thiol Tu-2449 100 kVp, 30 Gy 50% long-term tumour free survival
 Joh et al. (2013) 12 1.25 g Au/kg
i.v.
PEG U251 175 kVp, 20 Gy Increased median survival (28 vs 14 days)
 Miladi et al. (2014) 6.6 50 µl, 50 mM
i.t.
DTDTPA, DTDTPA-Gd U87 Mean energy of 90 keV DTDTPA increased lifespan up to 117.9%
DTDTPA-Gd increased lifespan up to 473.3%
 Wolfe et al. (2015) 31 x 9 100 µl, 40 µM GNPs
i.v.
PEG PC3 6 MV Tumour growth delay
 Zhang et al. (2012) 4.8
12.1
27.3
46.6
4 mg/kg
i.v.
PEG HeLa 662 keV Tumour growth inhibition
 Zhang et al. (2014) <2 10 mg/kg
i.p.
GSH or BSA U14 662 keV 55% (GSH) and 38% (BSA) decrease in tumour volume
  1. Comparison between GNPs’ radiosensitizing effect obtained with different energy sources, cell models and NP characteristics