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Table 2 Photoactivity of ZnPc and ZnPc–TiO2 on Leishmania promastigotes and different mammalian cell lines

From: The application of titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, fullerene, and graphene nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy

  Fluency (J/cm2) IC50 (μM) CC50 (μM)
Leishmania parasites Mammalian cell lines
Chagasi Panamensis HDFs THP-1 HepG2 Vero
ZnPc 0 >15 14.76 9.21 7.74 10.70 0.78
2.5a 12.86 6.63 1.08 0.14 0.28 0.24
2.5b 0.19 0.39 0.15 0.02 0.035 0.09
10a 5.63 5.63 0.05 0.17 0.086 0.038
ZnPc–TiO2 0 > 10 > 10 > 10 > 10 > 10 0.087
2.5a > 10 > 10 5.51 7.45 > 10 0.079
2.5b > 10 > 10 3.54 0.28 0.43 0.023
10a > 10 > 10 nd 2.00 5.50 0.001
  1. ZnPc zinc phthalocyanine, IC 50 concentration that induces 50% of parasite inhibition, CC 50 cytotoxic concentration that induces 50% of cell death, HDFs human-derived fibroblasts, THP-1 human macrophages, HepG2 human heptocellular carcinoma cells, nd not disclosed
  2. aLaser light irradiation (670 nm)
  3. bBiological photoreactor irradiation (597–752 nm)