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Table 4 Application of fullerene NPs in PDT

From: The application of titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, fullerene, and graphene nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy

Type of NPs (size, nm) PS (amount) NPs–PS interactions Irradiation conditions Type of ROS Cancer cell line Refs.
In vitro In vivo
Liposomes (nd) ATMP (1/C60) Conjugated 150 W lamp 350–800 nm, 54 J/cm2 1O2 Hep-2 Alvarez et al. (2006)
Liposomes (nd) AcTMP (1/C60) Conjugated 150 W lamp 350–800 nm, 54 J/cm2 1O2 Hep-2 Alvarez et al. (2009)
Reversed micelles (nd) FTEP (1/C60) Conjugated via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition Visible light (350–800 nm), 0.2 W/cm2, 8 J/cm2 1O2 S. aureus
E. coli
Belen Ballatore et al. (2014)
Liposomes (30) D-TMPyP (1/C70) Conjugated White light 400–700 nm, 17 mW/cm2, 5–20 min ROS
Guan et al. (2015b)
Liposomes (20) TMPyP (1/C70) Conjugated Laser 980 nm, 0.8 W/cm2, 10 min 1O2 HeLa-luc
HeLa-luc tumor-bearing female BALB/c nude mice Guan et al. (2015a)
Nanovesicles (31) Ce6 (57 wt%) Conjugated to C70 via the OEG2 linker Laser 660 nm, 20 mW/cm2 (in vitro) or 0.1 W/cm2 (in vivo), 10 min 1O2 A549 4T1-luc tumor-bearing female BALB/c mice Guan et al. (2016)
Micelles (37) DTX (< 80 wt%) Encapsulated Diode laser 532 nm, 0.1 W/cm2, 5 min ROS HeLa S180 tumor-bearing mice Guo et al. (2014)
Supramolecular assemblies (nd) TPP (nd) H-bonds
Hg lamp, equipped with an UV39 filter, 436 nm, 20–200 mW/cm2, 0–1 J/cm2 nd K562 Ion et al. (2010)
Supramolecular assemblies (nd) TPP (2/C60) H-bonds
Red light 635 nm, 50 J/cm2, 15 min ROS Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats Ion et al. (2012)
Complexes (nd) Ce6 and ZnCe6 (nd) nd A) Laser 662 nm and 890 nm, 100 J/cm2
B) Laser 615–680 nm
1O2 A) Embryocarcinoma bearing F1 hybrid female mice (CBA and C57/B6)
B) Lymphogenically metastasizing embryocarcinoma bearing female BALB/c mice
Laptev et al. (2009)
Complexes (nd) Pyro-a (2/C60) Conjugated Laser diode 668 nm, 2.12 mW/cm2, 0.5 and 3 min 1O2 Jurkat Rancan et al. (2005)
Dendrimers (nd) Pyro-a (6 or 12/C60) Conjugated nd 1O2 Jurkat
EBV transformed
Rancan et al. (2007a)
Dendrimers (nd) Pyro-a (2, 6 or 12/C60) Conjugated Laser diode 668 nm, 2.12 mW/cm2, 0.5, 1 and 3 min 1O2 Jurkat Rancan et al. (2007b)
NPs (80–200) 5-ALA (45.12 wt%) 5-ALA complexed with C60 Laser 630 nm, 0.1 W/cm2, 0.5 min nd B16-F10 B16-F10 mice melanoma Li et al. (2014)
  1. NPs nanoparticles, PS photosensitizer, ROS reactive oxygen species, nd not disclosed, ATMP 5-(4-amidophenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin, AcTMP 5-(4-acetamidophenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin, FTEP 5-(4-formylphenyl)-10,15,20-tris[3-(N-ethylcarbozoyl)] porphyrin, TMPyP trismethylpyridylporphyrin, D-TMPyP 5-(4-formylphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-pyridyl)-porphyrin, Ce6 chlorin e6, OEG2 1,10-diamino-4,7-dioxadecane, DTX docetaxel, TPP tetraphenylporphyrin, UV ultraviolet, Pyro-a pyropheophorbide a, 5-ALA 5-aminolevulinic acid