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Table 7 Application of graphene NPs in PDT and/or PTT

From: The application of titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, fullerene, and graphene nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy

Type of NPs (size, nm) PS (amount) NPs–PS interactions Irradiation conditions Type of ROS Cancer cell line Ref.
In vitro In vivo
Nanosheets (200) ZnPc (14 wt%) ππ stacking
Hydrophobic
UV band-path filtered Xe light, 60 J/cm2, 10 min nd MCF-7 Dong et al. (2010)
Nanosheets (nd) MB (nd) nd Laser 785 nm 1O2 Wojtoniszak et al. (2013)
Nanosheets (148) Ce6 (51.9 wt%) ππ stacking
Hydrophobic
LED 660 nm, 8000 mCd, 30 min nd SCC7 SCC7 bearing mice
C3H/HeN mice
Miao et al. (2013)
Nanosheets (20–40) Ce6 (26 wt%) ππ stacking
Hydrophobic
Laser 660 nm, 0.2 W/cm2, 5 min ROS
1O2
HeLa Zeng et al. (2015)
Nanosheets (nd) Ce6 (160 wt%) ππ stacking Laser 660 nm, 2 min ROS HeLa Liu et al. (2015a)
Nanosheets (200) ZnPc (60 wt%) ππ stacking
Hydrophobic
Light 660 nm, 0.15 W/cm2, 10 min 1O2 HeLa
MCF-7
Wu et al. (2014)
Nanosheets (120) MitoTPP (37.2 wt%) π–π stacking
Electrostatic
LED 650 nm, 10 mW/cm2, 30 min 1O2 HeLa Xu et al. (2015)
Nanosheets (nd) HP (23.6 wt%) ππ stacking
Hydrophobic
Laser 671 nm, 0.1 W/cm2, 5 min 1O2 HeLa Zhou et al. (2015)
Nanosheets (300–400) AdaTPP (nd) ππ stacking Visible light ROS HeLa
OCT-1
HeLa-bearing BALB/c nude mice Yang et al. (2012)
Nanosheets (80) AP-Ce6 (23.1 wt%) ππ stacking Light 650 nm, 50 mW/cm2, 20 min 1O2 HepG2 Yan et al. (2014)
Nanosheets (nd) Ce6 (80 wt%) ππ stacking
Hydrophobic
He–Ne laser 632.8 nm, 30 mW/cm2, 10 min nd MGC803 Huang et al. (2011)
Nanosheets (nd) Ce6 (80 wt%) ππ stacking
Hydrophobic
Laser 671 nm, 30 mW/cm2, 3 min 1O2 MGC803 Huang et al. (2015)
Nanosheets (78.1) Ce6 (115 wt%) ππ stacking
Hydrophobic
Laser 670 nm, 1.8 J/cm2 1O2 HeLa Li et al. (2013)
Nanosheets (50) Ce6 (15 wt%) ππ stacking Laser 660 nm, 15 J/cm2, 5 min (PDT); Laser 808 nm, 0.3 W/cm2, 360 J/cm2 (PTT) 1O2 KB Tian et al. (2011)
Nanosheets (38.4) MB (22.7 wt%) Electrostatic CW laser 650 nm, 0.15 W/cm2, 10 min (PDT) ; NIR laser 808 nm, 2 W/cm2, 3 min (PTT) 1O2 HeLa
NIH/3T3
HeLa (Sahu et al. 2013)
Nanosheets (nd) TSCuPc (27 wt%) ππ stacking Laser 650 nm, 3 W/cm2, 5 min ROS HeLa Jiang et al. (2014b)
Nanorods (nd) TSCuPc (38 wt%) ππ stacking Laser 650 nm, 3 W/cm2, 5 min ROS HeLa Jiang et al. (2014a)
Nanosheets (20.5) DVDMS (100 wt%) ππ stacking Laser 630 nm, 50 J (PDT); NIR laser 808 nm, 1 W/cm2, 10 min (PTT) 1O2 PC9 PC9 tumor-bearing mice Yan et al. (2015a)
Nanosheets (50) DVDMS (201.2 wt%) ππ stacking
Hydrophobic
Laser 630 nm, 50 J 1O2 U87MG U87MG tumor-bearing mice Yan et al. (2015b)
Nanorods (1–5) ZnMAPc (nd) nd Diode laser 676 nm, 98 mW/cm2, 5 J/cm2 1O2 A375 Ogbodu et al. (2013a, b, 2015b)
Nanorods (1–5) ZnMAPc (nd) nd 602 nm 1O2 Ogbodu et al. (2013b)
Nanorods (1–5) ZnMCPPc (nd) nd Quartz lamp 600–1000 nm, 28–112 J/cm2, 5–20 min 1O2 MCF-7 Ogbodu et al. (2015a)
Nanorods (1–5) ZnOCPc (nd) nd 610 nm 1O2 Ogbodu and Nyokong (2014)
Nanorods (nd) POR, MYR (nd) ππ stacking LED lamp 570 nm (yellow filter), 630 nm (red filter) or 940 nm 1O2 Safar et al. (2015)
Nanorods (nd) Ce6 (11.3 wt%) ππ stacking Laser 630 nm, 0.15 W/cm2, 10 min nd HeLa
NIH/3T3
Xiao et al. (2012)
Nanosheets (40) ZnPc (11 wt%) ππ stacking Laser 630 nm, 50 mW/cm2, 10 min (PDT); NIR laser 808 nm, 2 W/cm2, 10 min (PTT) 1O2 HeLa
KB
Wang et al. (2013)
Hydrogel shells (35) AE (nd) ππ stacking
Hydrophobic
Laser 600 nm, 0.2 W/cm2, 10 min 1O2 HeLa
CHO
Chang et al. (2015)
nd (40) SiNc4 (8.5 wt%) ππ stacking Halogen lamp 775 nm, 0.3 W/cm2, 60 min ROS
1O2
HeLa Gollavelli and Ling (2014)
Nanosheets (50) HPPH (131 wt%) ππ stacking Laser 671 nm, 2-8 mW/cm2, 3 min (in vitro) and 75 mW/cm2, 20 min (in vivo) 1O2 4T1 4T1-bearing mice Rong et al. (2014)
Nanosheets (102.4) Ce6 (nd) Grafted with disulfide bond (SS) CW laser beam 670 nm, 0.1 W/cm2, 20 J/cm2 1O2 A549 Cho and Choi (2012)
Nanosheets (441.1) Ce6 (nd) Hydrophobic CW laser beam 670 nm, 0.1 W/cm2, 20 J/cm2 1O2 A549 Cho et al. (2013)
Nanosheets (100) Ce6-Pep (35 wt%) ππ stacking
Hydrophobic
Laser 660 nm, 0.25 W/cm2, 200 s 1O2 KB
A549
HeLa
HaCaT
HeLa-bearing mice Tian et al. (2015)
Nanosheets (15) PcSi(OH)(mob) (20 wt%) Encapsulated into PPIG4 dendrimer Laser diode 690 nm, 0.3 W/cm2, 15 min (PDT/PTT, in vitro) 1O2 A2780/AD A2780/AD-bearing mice Taratula et al. (2013, 2015)
Nanocolloid Core@Shell NPs (15) ZnPc (1.9 106 ZnPc/Au@GON NP) ππ stacking LED 660 nm, 0.2 W/cm2, 10 min (PDT); NIR laser 808 nm, 0.67 W/cm2, 20 min (PTT) 1O2 HeLa Kim et al. (2015)
  1. NPs nanoparticles, PS photosensitizer, ROS reactive oxygen species, nd not disclosed, ZnPc zinc phthalocyanine, UV ultraviolet, MB methylene blue, Ce6 chlorin e6, MitoTPP 5-(p-(4-bromo)butoxyphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin, HP hematoporphyrin, AdaTPP adamantanyl porphyrin, AP aptamer, CW continuous wave, TSCuPc tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt copper phthalocyanine, DVDMS sinoporphyrin sodium, NIR near-infrared, ZnMAPc zinc monoamino phthalocyanine, ZnMCPPc zinc monocarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanine, ZnOCPc zinc octacarboxy phthalocyanine, POR meso-tetrakis(4-pyridyl)porphyrin tosylate salt, MYR meso-tetrakis(N-myristyl-4-pyridinium)porphyrin tosylate salt, AE chlorophyll derivatives in amaranth extract, SiNc4 silicon napthalocyanine bis (trihexylsilyloxide), HPPH 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-alpha, SS disulfide, HA hyaluronic acid, Pep peptide, PcSi(OH)(mob) monosubstituted phthalocyanine derivative, PPIG4 polypropylenimine generation 4, GON graphene oxide nanocolloid