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Fig. 1 | Cancer Nanotechnology

Fig. 1

From: Multiscale modeling for cancer radiotherapies

Fig. 1

Scenario of biological damage with ions. Ion propagation ends with a Bragg peak, shown in the top right corner. A segment of the track at the Bragg peak is shown in more detail. Secondary electrons and radicals propagate away from the ion’s path damaging biomolecules (central circle). They transfer the energy to the medium within the hot cylinder. This results in the rapid temperature and pressure increase inside this cylinder. The shock wave (shown in the expanding cylinder) due to this pressure increase may damage biomolecules by stress (left circle), but it also effectively propagates reactive species, such as radicals and solvated electrons to larger distances (right circle). A living cell responds to all shown DNA damage by creating foci (visible in the stained cells), in which enzymes attempt to repair the induced lesions. If these efforts are unsuccessful, the cell dies; an apoptotic cell is shown in the lower right corner

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