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Table 1 Phospholipids characteristics

From: Nanomedicine review: clinical developments in liposomal applications

PhospholipidAbbreviationC:UTC (º C)ChargeaAdvantagesDrawbacks
Hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholineHSPC16–18:052NeutralImportant role in membrane fusion, combined cationic lipidsLow cellular incorporation rate
Low cytotoxicity (Kolašinac et al. 2018; Zhao and Song Zhuang 2011)
Dilauroyl phosphatidylcholineDLPC12:0− 2
Dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholineDMPC14:024
Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholineDPPC16:041
Distearoyl phosphatidylcholineDSPC18:055
Dioleoyl phosphatidylcholineDOPC18:1c9− 17
Dilauroyl phosphatidylethanolamineDLPE12:029
Dimyristoyl phosphatidylethanolamineDMPE14:050
Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamineDPPE16:060
Distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamineDSPE18:074
Dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamineDOPE18:1− 16
Dilauroyl phosphatidylglycerolDLPG12:0− 3NegativePrevent the aggregation of liposomes due to electrostatic repulsion
Laterally assemble into nanoclusters and this occurs in a charge-dependent manner
Accumulation in tumor
Adsorptive endocytosis and enhance stability
Rapidly removed from circulation by the reticuloendothelial system (RES)
Negatively charged liposomes do not significantly adsorb protein (Tsermentseli et al. 2018; Ma et al. 2017)
Dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerolDMPG14:023
Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylglycerolDPPG16:041
Distearoyl phosphatidylglycerolDSPG18:055
Dioleoyl phosphatidylglycerolDOPG18:1− 18
Dilauroyl phosphatidylserineDLPS12:0 
Dimyristoyl phosphatidylserineDMPS14:035
Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserineDPPS16:051
Distearoyl phosphatidylserineDSPS18:068
Dioleoyl phosphatidylserineDOPS18:1− 11
Dilauroyl phosphatidic acidDLPA12:031
Dimyristoyl phosphatidic acidDMPA14:052
Dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acidDPPA16:065
Distearoyl phosphatidic acidDSPA18:075
Dioleoyl phosphatidic acidDOPA18:1− 4
Diacyl dimethylammonium-propaneDAP  PositiveStrong gene transfer ability
The head group helps to attract the liposome to the negatively charged cell membrane, thus increasing the cell incorporation rate
Good protein adsorption, through adsorptive endocytosis
High cytotoxicity
Low efficiency
Positively charged lipids are not approved by FDA for clinical use (Li et al. 2019; Honary and Zahir 2013)
Dioleoyl trimethylammonium-propaneDOTAP18:1< 5
  1. C:U number of carbons:number of unsaturation, TC transition temperature
  2. aAt pH 7