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Table 4 Description of clinical trial phases

From: Nanomedicine review: clinical developments in liposomal applications

PhaseNo. of patientsbDurationaDescriptiona
I< 25Several monthsSafety and dosage
II25–100Several months to 2 yearsEfficacy and side effects
IIIAt least several hundred1–4 yearsEfficacy and monitoring of adverse reactions
IVSeveral thousand > 4 yearsSafety and efficacy
  1. aAccording to FDA (2018)
  2. bAccording to American Cancer Society (2018)