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Table 1 The advantages and disadvantages of the Stöber and reverse microemulsion method

From: Dye-doped silica nanoparticles: synthesis, surface chemistry and bioapplications

StöberReverse microemulsion
AdvantagesDisadvantagesAdvantagesDisadvantages
Water-based synthesis possibleGreater NP polydispersity than reverse microemulsionPrecise control of NP sizeExcessive use of organic solvents
Surfactant-freeChallenging to produce sub-30 nm NPsSmall NPs (20–200 nm)Residual surfactant on NP surface following purification
Favoured for upscaling (gram scale)  Not suited to upscaling (milligramme scale)