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Table 1 Summary of physiochemical properties of cockle shell-derived calcium carbonate nanoparticles

From: Cockle shell-derived aragonite calcium carbonate nanoparticle for targeting cancer and breast cancer stem cells

Mode of CACNP preparation XRD pattern Encapsulation efficiency (%)/drug loaded Size and shape viewed with TEM Zeta potential References
Cockle shell dissolved with hydrochloric acid + CaCl2 + Na2CO3 + calcination Calcite   50-100 nm,   Tram (2020)
Higher pressure homogenizer (HPH) microemulsion system Aragonite 64–96% doxorubicin 12–30 nm rod-shaped, pleomorphic   Kamba (2013), Kamba et al. (2013a)
99.5% ciprofloxacin 11.93 to 22.12 nm spherical shaped, pleomorphic   Isa et al. (2016)
Cockle shell microparticles with surfactant BS-12 stirred at 80 °C for 90 min Aragonite 54% vancomycin 34 ± 5–36 ± 6 nm, cubic shaped, pleomorphic − 19.4 ± 3.3 mV Saidykhan et al. (2016)
Cockle shell microparticles with surfactant BS-12 stirred at 27 °C for 2 h Aragonite 93.8% to 97% doxorubicin 29.7 ± 5 nm, spherical, pleomorphic − 19.1 ± 3.9 mV Hamidu (2019)
Mechanical method Aragonite 58.9% cytarabine Diameter ranging from 20 to 50 nm, oval, homogeneous, − 11 mV Ghaji (2018)
Cockle shell microparticles with surfactant BS-12 stirred at 270C for 2 h + mechanical method Aragonite 95% to 99% doxorubicin 24.9 ± 4.07 nm, spherical, homogeneous − 21 mV Danmaigoro et al. (2017)
32% to 99% curcumin 21.38 ± 2.7 nm spherical, pleomorphic − 18.7 mV Mailafiya (2019b)
Cockle shell microparticles with surfactant BS-12 stirred 50 °C for 135 min + mechanical method Aragonite Gold 35 ± 16 nm, spherical, pleomorphic − 16.4 ± 3.81 mV Kiranda et al. (2018)