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Table 2 Summary of drug-loaded CACNP and their outcomes in cancer cells

From: Cockle shell-derived aragonite calcium carbonate nanoparticle for targeting cancer and breast cancer stem cells

Drug loaded into CACNP Response References
Doxorubicin Doxorubicin-loaded CACNP was effective in killing MCF-7 and MDB 231 compared to free doxorubicin in a time-dependent manner Kamba et al. (2013a, Kamba et al. (2014b)
  Sensitivity of MCF-7 cell to free doxorubicin and doxorubicin-loaded CACNP was time dependent Hamidu (2019)
  Doxorubicin-loaded calcium carbonate nanoparticle caused death of MG 63 cell by induction of apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis was by up-regulation of p53, Bax and caspases 3, 8 and 9 and down-regulation of the Bcl-2 protein Kamba et al. (2013b)
  Doxorubicin-loaded CACNP showed a similar reduction in cell viability as free doxorubicin in a concentration and time-dependent manner Fu (2017)
  Doxorubicin-loaded CACNP significantly reduced osteosarcoma tumour volume and doxorubicin-related cardiotoxicity in osteosarcoma bearing rats Fu (2018)
  Partial response and progressive canine RECIST response Danmaigoro (2019)
Doxorubicin, thymoquinone Doxorubicin–thymoquinone-loaded CACNP was the most efficient in eliminating breast cancer cells at a lower dose of doxorubicin and thymoquinone Ibiyeye et al. (2019)
  Doxorubicin–thymoquinone-loaded CACNP was most effective among the loaded CACNP in inhibiting CSCs’ properties Ibiyeye and Zuki (2020)
Gold Gold-conjugated calcium carbonate nanoparticle progressively decreased the percentage cell viability of MCF-7 cells Kiranda et al. 2018)
Docetaxel Free docetaxel and docetaxel-loaded CACNP revealed a progressive reduction in percentage viability of MCF-7 cancer cells in a dose and time-dependent manner Hammadi (2017a)
  Docetaxel-loaded CACNP and free docetaxel has similar anticancer effects on 4T1 cells Hammadi (2017b)
  Tumour volume, organ weight, tumour inhibition rate, and tumour metastatic score were significantly lowered in breast cancer bearing docetaxel-loaded CACNP 10 mg/kg Balb/C mice. group Hammadi (2018)
Cytarabine Cytarabine-loaded calcium carbonate nanoparticle significantly ameliorated the cancer effect in major organs of leukaemia-bearing SCID mice Ghaji (2018)