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Table 1 Summary of common chemical synthetic methods to generate graphene oxide-based nanomaterials

From: Recent progress of graphene oxide-based multifunctional nanomaterials for cancer treatment

Type Method Reaction condition Ref.
GO Chemical oxidation KClO3/fuming HNO3 Brodie (1859)
NaNO3/KMnO4/concentrated H2SO4 Hummers Jr and Offeman (1958)
KMnO4/H2SO4/H3PO4 Marcano et al. (2010)
rGO Chemical reduction Hydrazine, hydrazine hydrate, l-ascorbic acid Lin et al. (2016)
Graphene oxide derivatives Covalent Amine coupling to carboxylic groups; sulfonylation, acylation  
Non-covalent van der Waals forces, electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, π–π stacking interactions Zhang et al. (2017a, b, c, d, e)