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Table 1 Application of ZnO NPs in PDT

From: The application of titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, fullerene, and graphene nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy

Type of NPs (size, nm) PS (amount) NPs–PS interactions Irradiation conditions Type of ROS Cancer cell line Refs.
In vitro In vivo
NPs (5) MTAP (4/ZnO) Conjugated by coupling reaction UV light 365 nm, 0.51 W/cm2, 30 min nd NIH:OVCAR-3 Liu et al. (2008)
NPs (5) MTAP (4/ZnO) Conjugated by coupling reaction UV-A lamp 365 nm, 0.50 W/cm2, 30–120 min ROS NIH:OVCAR-3 Zhang et al. (2008)
Nanorods (130–150) Photofrin and 5-ALA (nd) Conjugated Diode laser 630 nm along with UV light of 240 nm, 0–160 J/cm2, 0–20 min ROS HepG2 SD rats Atif et al. (2011)
NPs (80–120) Photofrin and 5-ALA (nd) Conjugated Diode laser 635 nm, 80 J/cm2 nd HepG2 Fakhar-e-Alam et al. (2011a)
Nanorods (150–200) Photofrin, 5-ALA and PPDME (nd) Conjugated Diode laser 635 nm, 30 J/cm2, 6.5 min ROS HeLa Fakhar-e-Alam et al. (2011b)
Nanoporous (200–600) Photofrin (nd) Conjugated Diode laser, 80 J/cm2 ROS RD Fakhar-e-Alam et al. (2012)
NPs (35) PpIX (nd) Encapsulated Laser 630 nm, 80 J/cm2 ROS A549 Fakhar-e-Alam et al. (2014b)
Nanowires (150–170) PpXI (nd) Conjugated UV-A illumination, light dose 10 J/cm2 ROS FM55P
Fakhar-e-Alam et al. (2014a)
NPs (3–26) MTCP and CuMTCP (nd) Conjugated by coupling reaction UV-A/B (100 μW/cm2, 3 min) or X-ray (0.94 Gy, 30 s) irradiation ROS DU145
Sadjadpour et al. (2016)
Nanohexagons Nanorods (25–90) ZnPc
(OH)AlPcSmix (Pc: ZnO NPs, 12:1)
Conjugated by coupling reaction 669–690 nm nd D’Souza et al. (2015)
NPs (25–40) TSPP (nd) Encapsulated Visible light irradiation 1O2 S. aureus
E. coli
KCCM 12234
KCCM 11256
Senthilkumar et al. (2013)
  1. NPs nanoparticles, PS photosensitizer, ROS reactive oxygen species, nd not disclosed, MTAP meso-tetra(o-aminophenyl)porphyrin, UV ultraviolet, 5-ALA 5-aminolevulinic acid, SD Sprague Dawley, PPDME protoporphyrin dimethyl ester, PpIX protoporphyrin IX, MTCP meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin, ZnPc zinc phthalocyanine, ZnTMAAPc 2,(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis-(mercaptoacetic acid phthalocyaninato) zinc(II), ZnTMPAPc 2,(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis-(mercaptopropanoic acid phthalocyaninato) zinc(II), (OH)AlPcSmix mixture of the di-, tri-, and tetra-sulfonated phthalocyanine derivatives, ZnO zinc oxide, TSPP meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin