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Table 3 Application of TiO2 NPs in PDT

From: The application of titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, fullerene, and graphene nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy

Type of NPs (size, nm) PS (amount) NPs–PS interactions Irradiation conditions Type of ROS Cancer cell line Refs.
In vitro In vivo
NPs (32–37) TSPP (1/TiO2) Conjugated via a silyl linker Laser irradiation 1O2 Skin tumors from mice Ion and Brezoi (2005b); Ion (2004)
NPs (nd) ZnPc (nd) Encapsulated Laser light 670  nm, 2.5 or 10 J/cm2, or biological photoreactor 597–752 nm, 2.5 J/cm2 1O2 THP-1
L. chagasi
L. panamensis
Lopez et al. (2010)
NPs (164.2) DBMC (63.3 μg/TiO2) Conjugated via an ether linker UV–visible (≥ 410 nm), 0–60 min 1O2 MDA-MB-231 Gangopadhyay et al. (2015)
NPs (25–40) AlPcS4 (nd) Electrostatic attraction 150-W Xe lamp (420–800 nm), 15 J/cm2 ROS HeLa
(Pan et al. 2015)
NPs (nd) 5-ALA (molar mass ratio 5-ALA:TiO2, 2:1) H-bonds 403 ± 6 nm, 5 mW/cm2, 18 J/cm2, 60 min nd HL60 Lu et al. (2015)
Nanowhiskers (> 100) TSPP (15.7 wt%) Physical absorption Visible light 500–550 nm, 30 min ROS 1O2 Fibroblast cells from RA joint of SD rats Male SD strain rats and DBA-1 mice with RA disease Zhao et al. (2015)
Nanowhiskers (30) TSPP (17.4 wt%) Charge transfer Green light 500–550 nm, 5 mW/dm2, 10 min 1O2 HSC
Zhao et al. (2016)
Nanowhiskers (nd) TSPP (nd) Ionic bonding Visible LED light (500–550 nm), 5 mW/dm2, 5 min for in vitro and 60 min for in vivo ROS
RA infected BMS cells BMS cells from the RA infected murine models Rehman et al. (2015)
Nanowhiskers (nd) TSPP (concentration TiO2:TSPP, 6:1) Solution mixture Green light 500–550 nm, 60 min ROS
Fibroblast primary cells from SD rats Male SD rats Rehman et al. (2016b)
Nanowhiskers (nd) TSPP (concentration TiO2:TSPP, 10:1) Absorption Visible light 500–550 nm, 60 min ROS
Diabetes mellitus murine model (type I and type II) Rehman et al. (2016a)
  1. NPs nanoparticles, PS photosensitizer, ROS reactive oxygen species, nd not disclosed, TSPP meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin, ZnPc zinc phthalocyanine, DBMC 7,8-dihydroxy-4-bromomethylcoumarin, UV ultraviolet, AlPcS 4 aluminum phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonate, 5-ALA 5-aminolevulinic acid, SD Sprague Dawley